Motion Picture Producers and Distributors Association, “Hays Formula,” 1922
The motion picture studios and the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors Association came to a gentlemen’s agreement on thirteen elements to be avoided on screen, namely films that:
1. dealt with sex in an improper manner;
2. were based on white slavery;
3. made vice attractive;
4. exhibited nakedness;
5. had prolonged passionate love scenes;
6. were predominantly concerned with the underworld;
7. made gambling and drunkenness attractive;
8. might instruct the weak in methods of committing crime;
9. ridiculed public officials;
10. offended religious beliefs;
11. emphasized violence;
12. portrayed vulgar postures and gestures; and
13. used salacious subtitles and advertising.
Source: Miller, F. (1994). Censored Hollywood: Sex, sin & violence on screen. Atlanta, GA: Turner Publishing.