Motion Picture Producers and Distributors Association, “Hays Formula,” 1922

The motion picture studios and the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors Association came to a gentlemen’s agreement on thirteen elements to be avoided on screen, namely films that:

1. dealt with sex in an improper manner;

2. were based on white slavery;

3. made vice attractive;

4. exhibited nakedness;

5. had prolonged passionate love scenes;

6. were predominantly concerned with the underworld;

7. made gambling and drunkenness attractive;

8. might instruct the weak in methods of committing crime;

9. ridiculed public officials;

10. offended religious beliefs;

11. emphasized violence;

12. portrayed vulgar postures and gestures; and

13. used salacious subtitles and advertising.

Source: Miller, F. (1994). Censored Hollywood: Sex, sin & violence on screen. Atlanta, GA: Turner Publishing.